Boganda ruled until his death in a plane crash on 29 March 1959.  In October 2017, another ceasefire was signed between the UPC, the FPRC, and anti-balaka groups and FPRC announced Ali Darassa as coalition vice-president but fighting continued afterward. This led to UPC to find new territory, spreading the fighting from urban to rural areas previously spared. 4, The History of Central and Eastern Africa, Amy McKenna, 2011, pg. , The Central African Republic is the focal point of the Bangui Magnetic Anomaly, one of the largest magnetic anomalies on Earth. Clist, B. In the 2009 World Bank Group's report Doing Business, it was ranked 183rd of 183 as regards 'ease of doing business', a composite index which takes into account regulations that enhance business activity and those that restrict it. The UN continues to maintain a peace building mission in Bangui. The Séléka government was said to be divided, and in September 2013, Djotodia officially disbanded Seleka, but many rebels refused to disarm, becoming known as ex-Seleka, and veered further out of government control. Western Ubangi-Shari remained under German rule until World War I, after which France again annexed the territory using Central African troops. By 2015, there was little government control outside of the capital, Bangui. , The United Nations estimates that approximately 4% of the population aged between 15 and 49 is HIV positive.  However, approximately half of the adult population of the country is illiterate. In 1998, parliamentary elections resulted in Kolingba's RDC winning 20 out of 109 seats, constituting a comeback.  The Bureau of International Labor Affairs has also mentioned it in its last edition of the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. The third period involved the colonial conquest and rule of the country by France and Germany which spanned from the late 1800s until 1960 when the Central African Republic became an independent state. , The State Department report also cites widespread mob violence, the prevalence of female genital mutilation, discrimination against women and Pygmies, human trafficking, forced labor, and child labor. The Central African Republic is governed under the constitution of 2015. Bokassa returned unexpectedly in October 1986 and on 12 June 1987, he was convicted of having ordered the murders of at least 20 prisoners and the arrest of the schoolchildren who were murdered. , River ferries sail from the river port at Bangui to Brazzaville and Zongo. Abel Goumba was named vice-president, which gave Bozizé's new government a positive image.[why?] , The prefectures are Bamingui-Bangoran, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kémo, Lobaye, Mambéré-Kadéï, Mbomou, Nana-Mambéré, Ombella-M'Poko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pendé and Vakaga. , When a second round of elections were finally held in 1993, again with the help of the international community coordinated by GIBAFOR, Ange-Félix Patassé won in the second round of voting with 53% of the vote while Goumba won 45.6%. As a member of the World Health Organization, the Central African Republic receives vaccination assistance, such as a 2014 intervention for the prevention of a measles epidemic.  The new unity government that resulted was formed in January 2009. In May 2005, Bozizé won the presidential election, which excluded Patassé, and in 2006 fighting continued between the government and the rebels.  Three priority areas were identified: first, the reform of the security sector; second, the promotion of good governance and the rule of law; and third, the revitalization of communities affected by conflicts. , The Republic's primary import partner is France (17.1%). , The nation is divided into over 80 ethnic groups, each having its own language. What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century.   Freedom of movement is limited in the northern part of the country "because of actions by state security forces, armed bandits, and other nonstate armed entities", and due to fighting between government and anti-government forces, many persons have been internally displaced. Modeled on King Leopold's Congo Free State, concessions were doled out to private companies that endeavored to strip the region's assets as quickly and cheaply as possible before depositing a percentage of their profits into the French treasury. " By August 2013, there were reports of over 200,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), French President François Hollande called on the UN Security Council and African Union to increase their efforts to stabilize the country. The country is a former French colony. , The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) has 140 members, elected for a five-year term using the two-round (or Run-off) system. The economic prefectures are Nana-Grébizi and Sangha-Mbaéré, while the commune is the capital city of Bangui.  In 2019, over US$100 million in foreign aid was spent in the country, mostly on humanitarian assistance.  This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Bangui M'Poko International Airport is Central African Republic's only international airport. In addition to the Fertit Hills in the northeast of the CAR, there are scattered hills in the southwest regions.  Séléka leader Michel Djotodia declared himself President.  In 2007, female life expectancy at birth was 48.2 years and male life expectancy at birth was 45.1 years. UNESCO World Heritage, Les mégalithes de Bouar. Which country is to the east of Central African Republic? Government. , As in many other former French colonies, the Central African Republic's legal system is based on French law. However, Patassé, who was living in exile in Togo, could not be ruled out as a leader of a future uprising. , The Central African Republic is heavily dependent upon foreign aid and numerous NGOs provide services that the government does not provide. Since 1997, the country has hosted almost a dozen peacekeeping interventions, earning it the title of "world champion of peacekeeping". The third period involved the colonial conquest and rule of the country by France and Germany which spanned from the late 1800s until 196… In this system, the President is the head of state, with a Prime Minister as head of government. On 18 February 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the UN Security Council to immediately deploy 3,000 troops to the country, bolstering the 6,000 African Union soldiers and 2,000 French troops already in the country, to combat civilians being murdered in large numbers.  A report by the International Research & Exchanges Board's media sustainability index noted that "the country minimally met objectives, with segments of the legal system and government opposed to a free media system".. The country lies between latitudes 2° and 11°N, and longitudes 14° and 28°E.. MESAN continued to exist, but its role was limited.  Witchcraft is a criminal offense under the penal code. On 13 April 2007, a peace agreement between the government and the UFDR was signed in Birao. , The Central African Republic relies heavily on Russian mercenaries for the protection of its diamond mines. , Production of copper, salt, dried fish, and textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region.. Years of conflict and instability have destroyed … , On 28 May 2001, rebels stormed strategic buildings in Bangui in an unsuccessful coup attempt. , In 2006, due to ongoing violence, over 50,000 people in the country's northwest were at risk of starvation but this was averted due to assistance from the United Nations.  New forms of forced labor were also introduced and a large number of Ubangians were sent to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway. Most of the northern half lies within the World Wildlife Fund's East Sudanian savanna ecoregion. Zangato, E. and Holl, A.F.C.  The U.S. State Department alleged that major human rights abuses such as extrajudicial executions by security forces, torture, beatings and rape of suspects and prisoners occurred with impunity. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 20:28. He was released from prison on 1 September 1993, as a result of an amnesty and died of a heart attack in Bangui on 3 November 1996 at age 75.  Further negotiations resulted in an agreement in 2008 for reconciliation, a unity government, and local elections in 2009 and parliamentary and presidential elections in 2010. The largest ethnic groups are the Baggara Arabs, Baka, Banda, Bayaka, Fula, Gbaya, Kara, Kresh, Mbaka, Mandja, Ngbandi, Sara, Vidiri, Wodaabe, Yakoma, Yulu, Zande, with others including Europeans of mostly French descent. , On 11 January 2013, a ceasefire agreement was signed Libreville, Gabon. In the second round, Patassé won 53% of the vote while Goumba won 45.6%. Europeans, primarily the French, German, and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885. Dacko, in turn, was again overthrown in a coup by General André Kolingba on 1 September 1981. Armed entrepreneurs had carved out personal fiefdoms in which they set up checkpoints, collect illegal taxes, and take in millions of dollars from the illicit coffee, mineral, and timber trades. Bokassa abolished the constitution of 1959, dissolved the National Assembly, and issued a decree that placed all legislative and executive powers in the hands of the president. This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. , In 1920 French Equatorial Africa was established and Ubangi-Shari was administered from Brazzaville.  Catherine Samba-Panza assumed the office of interim president on 23 January 2014. Kolingba's two major political opponents, Abel Goumba and Ange-Félix Patassé, boycotted these elections because their parties were not allowed to participate. The former French colony became independent in 1960.  On 8 January 2008, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon declared that the Central African Republic was eligible to receive assistance from the Peacebuilding Fund. 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